1558. Effect of near‑fault ground motions with long‑period pulses on the tunnel

Wu-Sheng Zhao1, Wei-Zhong Chen2

State Key Laboratory of Geomechanics and Geotechnical Engineering,
Institute of Rock and Soil Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan, China

2Corresponding author

E-mail: 1zhwusheng@163.com, 2wei_zhong_chen@163.com

(Received 24 December 2014; received in revised form 11 February 2015; accepted 10 March 2015)

Abstract. Investigations from recent strong earthquakes indicate most of the tunnels severely damaged are located near the causative faults. First, the dynamic response of the tunnel to the near-fault and far-field ground motions was investigated. The results show that the near-fault motions with long-period pulses especially the forward directivity pulses are more damaging than the typical far-field records, which should be reflected in the seismic design guideline for tunnels near causative faults. Furthermore, the effects of the key parameters for the simplified pulse on the dynamic response of the tunnel were also studied. Generally, the pulse with larger amplitude brings more energy and leads to larger strains in rock. Consequently, it becomes more damaging to the tunnel. The period of the pulse can remarkably influence the response of the tunnel. When the period of the pulse is less than 3.0 s, the pulse becomes less damaging to the tunnel with the increase of the period. Once the period exceeds 3.0 s, the pulse has little effect on the dynamic response of the tunnel. Thus, the earthquake with lower magnitude, which is likely to leads to lower period, may be more damaging to the tunnel. Besides, as the number of significant cycles increases, the damage potential of the ground motions increases accordingly. For the sake of security, two significant cycles in velocity-time history are recommended for the seismic design of tunnels close to ruptured faults.

Keywords: near-fault, tunnel, directivity effect, fling effect, parametric study.

References

[1]        Mollaioli F., Bruno S., Decanini L. D., Panza G. F. Characterization of the dynamic response of structures to damaging pulse-type near-fault ground motions. Meccanica, Vol. 41, Issue 1, 2006, p. 23‑46.

[2]        Somerville P. G., Smith N. F., Graves R. W., Abrahamson N. A. Modification of empirical strong ground motion attenuation relations to include the amplitude and duration effects of rupture directivity. Seismological Research Letters, Vol. 68, Issue 1, 1997, p. 199‑222.

[3]        Hayden C. P., Bray J. D., Abrahamson N. A., Acevedo-Cabrera A. L. Selection of near-fault pulse motions for use in design. 15th World Conference on Earthquake Engineering, 2012.

[4]        Shahi S. K., Baker J. W. An empirically calibrated framework for including the effects of near-fault directivity in probabilistic seismic hazard analysis. Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, Vol. 101, Issue 2, 2011, p. 742‑755.

[5]        Hossein Tahghighi Earthquake fault-induced surface rupture – A hybrid strong ground motion simulation technique and discussion for structural design. Earthquake Engineering and Structural Dynamics, Vol.40, Issue 14, 2011, p. 1591‑1608.

[6]        Vaez S. H., Sharbatdar M. K., Amiri G. G., Naderpour H., Kheyroddin A. Dominant pulse simulation of near fault ground motions. Earthquake Engineering and Engineering Vibration, Vol. 12, Issue 2, 2013, p. 267‑278.

[7]        Mukhopadhyay S., Gupta V. K. Directivity pulses in near-fault ground motions-I: Identification, extraction and modeling. Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering, Vol. 50, 2013, p. 1‑15.

[8]        Ucak A., Mavroeidis G. P., Tsopelas P. Behavior of a seismically isolated bridge crossing a fault rupture zone. Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering, Vol. 57, 2014, p. 164‑178.

[9]        Rodriguez-Marek A., Bray J. D. Seismic site response for near-fault forward directivity ground motions. Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, Vol. 132, Issue 12, 2006, p. 1611‑1620.

[10]     Zhang S., Wang G. Effects of near-fault and far-fault ground motions on nonlinear dynamic response and seismic damage of concrete gravity dams. Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering, Vol. 53, 2013, p. 217‑229.

[11]     Kalkan E., Kunnath S. K. Effects of fling step and forward directivity on seismic response of buildings. Earthquake Spectra, Vol. 22, Issue 2, 2006, p. 367‑390.

[12]     Sehhati R., Rodriguez-Marek A., ElGawady M., Cofer W. F. Effects of near-fault ground motions and equivalent pulses on multi-story structures. Engineering Structures, Vol. 33, Issue 3, 2011, p. 767‑779.

[13]     Corigliano M., Scandella L., Lai C. G., Paolucci R. Seismic analysis of deep tunnels in near fault conditions: a case study in Southern Italy. Bulletin of Earthquake Engineering, Vol. 9, Issue 4, 2011, p. 975‑995.

[14]     Bray J. D., Rodriguez-Marek A., Gillie J. L. Design ground motions near active faults. Bulletin of the New Zealand Society for Earthquake Engineering, Vol. 42, Issue 1, 2009, p. 1‑8.

[15]     Mavroeidis G. P., Papageorgiou A. S. A mathematical representation of near-fault ground motions. Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, Vol. 93, Issue 3, 2003, p. 1099‑1131.

[16]     Somerville P. G. Magnitude scaling of the near fault rupture directivity pulse. Physics of the earth and planetary interiors, Vol. 137, Issue 1, 2003, p. 201‑212.

[17]     Bray J. D., Rodriguez-Marek A. Characterization of forward-directivity ground motions in the near‑fault region. Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering, Vol. 24, Issue 11, 2004, p. 815‑828.

[18]     Farid Ghahari S., Jahankhah H., Ghannad M. A. Study on elastic response of structures to near‑fault ground motions through record decomposition. Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering, Vol. 30, Issue 7, 2010, p. 536‑546.

[19]     Somerville P. G. Development of an improved representation of near fault ground motions. Proceedings of the SMIP98 Seminar on Utilization of Strong Ground Motion Data, California Division of Mines and Geology, Sacramento, 1998, p. 1‑20.

[20]     Joyner W. B., Boore D. M. Peak horizontal acceleration and velocity from strong motion records including records from the 1979 Imperial Valley, California, earthquake. Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, Vol. 71, Issue 6, 1987, p. 2011‑2038.

[21]     Mena B., Mai P. M. Selection and quantification of near-fault velocity pulses owing to source directivity. Georisk, Vol. 5, Issue 1, 2011, p. 25‑43.

[22]     Geniş M. Assessment of the dynamic stability of the portals of the Dorukhan tunnel using numerical analysis. International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences, Vol. 47, Issue 8, 2010, p. 1231‑1241.

[23]     Ministry of Transport of the People’s Republic of China. Code for design of road tunnel, JTG D70‑2004. China Architecture and Building Press, Beijing, 2004, (in Chinese).

[24]     Ministry of Housing and Urban‑Rural Development of the People’s Republic of China. Code for design of concrete structures, GB 50010‑2002. China Architecture and Building Press, Beijing, 2002, (in Chinese).

[25]     Hillerborg A., Modéer M., Petersson P. E. Analysis of crack formation and crack growth in concrete by means of fracture mechanics and finite elements. Cement and Concrete Research, Vol. 6, Issue 6, 1976, p. 773‑781.

[26]     Lee J., Fenves G. L. Plastic-damage model for cyclic loading of concrete structures. Journal of Engineering Mechanics, Vol. 124, Issue 8, 1998, p. 892‑900.

[27]     Lubliner J., Oliver J., Oller S., Onate E. A plastic-damage model for concrete. International Journal of Solids and Structures, Vol. 25, Issue 3, 1989, p. 299‑326.

[28]     Baker J. W. Quantitative classification of near-fault ground motions using wavelet analysis. Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, Vol. 97, Issue 5, 2007, p. 1486‑1501.

[29]     Alavi B., Krawinkler H. Consideration of near-fault ground motion effects in seismic design. Proceedings of the 12th World Conference on Earthquake Engineering, 2000.

[30]     Ministry of Housing and Urban-Rural Development of the People’s Republic of China. Code for seismic design of buildings, GB 50011‑2010. China Architecture and Building Press, Beijing, 2010, (in Chinese).

Cite this article

Zhao Wu‑Sheng, Chen Wei‑Zhong Effect of near‑fault ground motions with long‑period pulses on the tunnel. Journal of Vibroengineering, Vol. 17, Issue 2, 2015, p. 841‑858.

 

© JVE International Ltd. Journal of Vibroengineering. Mar 2015, Volume 17, Issue 2. ISSN 1392-8716